Introduction
Usage
Common Parameters
List available scripts
Script description
Verifying parameters
Running a script
Single-stepping a script
Creating a script
How scripts work, in detail
Actions
Basic structure
Command arguments
Remote permissions
Running scripts without a cluster
Running in validate mode
Helper library
The handles language

Cluster Scripts

Note
Version information
This section applies to crmsh 2.2+ only.

Introduction

A big part of the configuration and management of a cluster is collecting information about all cluster nodes and deploying changes to those nodes. Often, just performing the same procedure on all nodes will encounter problems, due to subtle differences in the configuration.

For example, when configuring a cluster for the first time, the software needs to be installed and configured on all nodes before the cluster software can be launched and configured using crmsh. This process is cumbersome and error-prone, and the goal is for scripts to make this process easier.

Another important function of scripts is collecting information and reporting potential issues with the cluster. For example, software versions may differ between nodes, causing byzantine errors or random failure. crmsh comes packaged with a health script which will detect and warn about many of these types of problems.

There are many tools for managing a collection of nodes, and scripts are not intended to replace these tools. Rather, they provide an integrated way to perform tasks across the cluster that would otherwise be tedious, repetitive and error-prone. The scripts functionality in the crm shell is mainly inspired by Ansible, a light-weight and efficient configuration management tool.

Scripts are implemented using the python parallax package which provides a thin wrapper on top of SSH. This allows the scripts to function through the usual SSH channels used for system maintenance, requiring no additional software to be installed or maintained.

For many scripts that only configure cluster resources or only perform changes on the local machine, the use of SSH is not necessary. These scripts can be used even if there is no way for crmsh to reach the other nodes other than through the cluster configuration.

Note The scripts functionality in crmsh has been greatly expanded and improved in crmsh 2.2. Many new scripts have been added, and in addition the scripts are now used as the backend for the wizards functionality in HAWK, the HA web interface. For more information, see https://github.com/ClusterLabs/hawk.

Usage

Scripts are available through the cluster sub-level in the crm shell. Some scripts have custom commands linked to them for convenience, such as the init, add and remove commands available in the cluster sublevel, for creating new clusters, introducing new nodes into the cluster and for removing nodes from a running cluster.

Other scripts can be accessed through the script sub-level.

Common Parameters

Which parameters a script accepts varies from script to script. However, there is a set of parameters that are common to all scripts. These parameters can be passed to any script.

nodes

List of nodes to execute the script for

dry_run

If set, simulate execution only (default: no)

action

If set, only execute a single action (index, as returned by verify)

statefile

When single-stepping, the state is saved in the given file

user

Run script as the given user

sudo

If set, crm will prompt for a sudo password and use sudo when appropriate (default: no)

port

Port to connect on

timeout

Execution timeout in seconds (default: 600)

List available scripts

To list the available scripts, use the following command:

# crm script
list

The available scripts are listed along with a short description. Optionally, the arguments all or names can be used. Without the all flag, some scripts that are used by crmsh to implement certain commands are hidden from view. With the names flag, only a plain list of script names is printed.

Script description

To get more details about a script, run the show command. For example, to get more information about what the virtual-ip script does and what parameters it accepts, use the following command:

# crm script
show virtual-ip

show will print a longer description of the script, along with a list of parameters divided into steps. Each script is divided into a series of steps which are performed in order. Some steps may not accept any parameters, but for those that do, the available parameters are listed here.

By default, only a basic subset of the available parameters is printed in order to make the scripts easier to use. By passing all to the show command, the advanced parameters are also shown. In addition, there is a list of common parameters

show will print a longer explanation for the script, along with a list of parameters, each parameter having a description, a note saying if it is an optional or required parameter, and if optional, what the default value is.

Verifying parameters

Since a script potentially performs a series of actions and may fail for various reasons at any point, it is advisable to review the actions that a script will perform before actually running it. To do this, the verify command can be used.

Pass the parameters that you would pass to run, and verify will check that the parameter values are OK, as well as print the sequence of steps that will be performed given the particular parameter values given.

The following is an example showing how to verify the creation of a Virtual IP resource, using the virtual-ip script:

# crm script
verify virtual-ip id=my-virtual-ip ip=192.168.0.10

crmsh will print something similar to the following output:

1. Configure cluster resources

        primitive my-virtual-ip ocf:heartbeat:IPaddr2
                ip="192.168.0.10"
                op start timeout="20" op stop timeout="20"
                op monitor interval="10" timeout="20"

In this particular case, there is only a single step, and that step configures a primitive resource. Other scripts may configure multiple resources and constraints, or may perform multiple steps in sequence.

Running a script

To run a script, all required parameters and any optional parameters that should have values other than the default should be provided as key=value pairs on the command line.

The following example shows how to create a Virtual IP resource using the virtual-ip script:

# crm script
run virtual-ip id=my-virtual-ip ip=192.168.0.10

Single-stepping a script

It is possible to run a script action-by-action, with manual intervention between actions. First of all, list the actions to perform given a certain set of parameter values:

crm script verify health

To execute a single action, two things need to be provided:

  1. The index of the action to execute (printed by verify)

  2. a file in which crmsh stores the state of execution.

Note that it is entirely possible to run actions out-of-order, however this is unlikely to work in practice since actions often rely on the outcome of previous actions.

The following command will execute the first action of the health script and store the output in a temporary file named health.json:

crm script run health action=1 statefile='health.json'

The statefile contains the script parameters and the output of previous steps, encoded as json data.

To continue executing the next action in sequence, enter the next action index:

crm script run health action=2 statefile='health.json'

Note that the dry_run flag that can be used to do partial execution of scripts is not taken into consideration when single-stepping through a script.

Creating a script

This section will describe how to create a new script, where to put the script to allow crmsh to find it, and how to test that the script works as intended.

How scripts work, in detail

Note The implementation of cluster scripts was revised between crmsh 2.0 and crmsh 2.2. This section describes the revised cluster script format. The old format is still accepted by crmsh.

A cluster script consists of four main sections:

  1. The name and description of the script.

  2. Any other scripts or agents included by this script, and any parameter value overrides to those provided by the included script.

  3. A set of parameters accepted by the script itself, in addition to those accepted by any scripts or agents included in the script.

  4. A sequence of actions which the script will perform.

When the script runs, the actions defined in main.yml as described below are executed one at a time. Each action prescribes a modification that is applied to the cluster. Some actions work by calling out to scripts on each of the cluster nodes, and others apply only on the local node from which the script was executed.

Actions

Scripts perform actions that are classified into a few basic types. Each action is performed by calling out to a shell script, but the arguments and location of that script varies depending on the type.

Here are the types of script actions that can be performed:

cib
  • Applies a new CIB configuration to the cluster

install
  • Ensures that the given list of packages is installed on all cluster nodes using the system package manager.

service
  • Manages system services using the system init tools. The argument should be a space-separated list of <service>:<state> pairs.

call
  • Run a shell command as specified in the action, either on the local node on or all nodes.

copy
  • Installs a file on the cluster nodes.

  • Using a configuration template, install a file on the cluster nodes.

crm
  • Runs the given command using the crm shell. This can be used to start and stop resources, for example.

collect
  • Runs on all cluster nodes

  • Gathers information about the nodes, both general information and information specific to the script.

validate
  • Runs on the local node

  • Validate parameter values and node state based on collected information. Can modify default values and report issues that would prevent the script from applying successfully.

apply
  • Runs on all or any cluster nodes

  • Applies changes, returning information about the applied changes to the local node.

apply_local
  • Runs on the local node

  • Applies changes to the cluster, where an action taken on a single node affect the entire cluster. This includes updating the CIB in Pacemaker, and also reloading the configuration for Corosync.

report
  • Runs on the local node

  • This is similar to the apply_local action, with the difference that the output of a Report action is not interpreted as JSON data to be passed to the next action. Instead, the output is printed to the screen.

Basic structure

The crm shell looks for scripts in two primary locations: Included scripts are installed in the system-wide shared folder, usually /usr/share/crmsh/scripts/. Local and custom scripts are loaded from the user-local XDG_CONFIG folder, usually found at ~/.local/crm/scripts/. These locations may differ depending on how the crm shell was installed and which system is used, but these are the locations used on most distributions.

To create a new script, make a new folder in the user-local scripts folder and give it a unique name. In this example, we will call our new script check-uptime.

mkdir -p ~/.local/crm/scripts/check-uptime

In this directory, create a file called main.yml. This is a YAML document which describes the script, which parameters it requires, and what actions it will perform.

YAML is a human-readable markup language which is designed to be easy to read and modify, while at the same time be compatible with JSON. To learn more, see yaml.org.

Here is an example main.yml file which wraps the resource agent ocf:heartbeat:IPaddr2.

# The version must be exactly 2.2, and must always be
# specified in the script. If the version is missing or
# is less than 2.2, the script is assumed to be a legacy
# script (specified in the format used before crmsh 2.2).
version: 2.2
shortdesc: Virtual IP
category: Basic
include:
  - agent: ocf:heartbeat:IPaddr2
    name: virtual-ip
    parameters:
      - name: id
        type: resource
        required: true
      - name: ip
        type: ip_address
        required: true
      - name: cidr_netmask
        type: integer
        required: false
      - name: broadcast
        type: ip_address
        required: false
    ops: |
      op start timeout="20" op stop timeout="20"
      op monitor interval="10" timeout="20"
actions:
  - include: virtual-ip

For a bigger example, here is the apache agent which includes multiple optional steps, the optional installation of packages, defines multiple cluster resources and potentially calls bash commands on each of the cluster nodes.

# Copyright (C) 2009 Dejan Muhamedagic
# Copyright (C) 2015 Kristoffer Gronlund
#
# License: GNU General Public License (GPL)
version: 2.2
category: Server
shortdesc: Apache Webserver
longdesc: |
  Configure a resource group containing a virtual IP address and
  an instance of the Apache web server.

  You can optionally configure a Filesystem resource which will be
  mounted before the web server is started.

  You can also optionally configure a database resource which will
  be started before the web server but after mounting the optional
  filesystem.
include:
  - agent: ocf:heartbeat:apache
    name: apache
    longdesc: |
      The Apache configuration file specified here must be available via the
      same path on all cluster nodes, and Apache must be configured with
      mod_status enabled.  If in doubt, try running Apache manually via
      its init script first, and ensure http://localhost:80/server-status is
      accessible.
    ops: |
      op start timeout="40"
      op stop timeout="60"
      op monitor interval="10" timeout="20"
  - script: virtual-ip
    shortdesc: The IP address configured here will start before the Apache instance.
    parameters:
      - name: id
        value: "{{id}}-vip"
  - script: filesystem
    shortdesc: Optional filesystem mounted before the web server is started.
    required: false
  - script: database
    shortdesc: Optional database started before the web server is started.
    required: false
parameters:
  - name: install
    type: boolean
    shortdesc: Install and configure apache
    value: false
actions:
  - install:
      - apache2
    shortdesc: Install the apache package
    when: install
  - service:
      - apache: disable
    shortdesc: Let cluster manage apache
    when: install
  - call: a2enmod status; true
    shortdesc: Enable status module
    when: install
  - include: filesystem
  - include: database
  - include: virtual-ip
  - include: apache
  - cib: |
      group g-{{id}}
        {{filesystem:id}}
        {{database:id}}
        {{virtual-ip:id}}
        {{id}}

The language for referring to parameter values in cib actions is described below.

Command arguments

The actions that accept a command as argument must not refer to commands written in python. They can be plain bash scripts or any other executable script as long as the nodes have the necessary dependencies installed. However, see below why implementing scripts in Python is easier.

Actions report their progress either by returning JSON on standard output, or by returning a non-zero return value and printing an error message to standard error.

Any JSON returned by an action will be available to the following steps in the script. When the script executes, it does so in a temporary folder created for that purpose. In that folder is a file named script.input, containing a JSON array with the output produced by previous steps.

The first element in the array (the zeroth element, to be precise) is a dict containing the parameter values.

The following elements are dicts with the hostname of each node as key and the output of the action generated by that node as value.

In most cases, only local actions (validate and apply_local) will use the information in previous steps, but scripts are not limited in what they can do.

With this knowledge, we can implement fetch.py and report.py.

fetch.py:

#!/usr/bin/env python
import crm_script as crm
try:
    uptime = open('/proc/uptime').read().split()[0]
    crm.exit_ok(uptime)
except:
    crm.exit_fail("Couldn't open /proc/uptime")

report.py:

#!/usr/bin/env python
import crm_script as crm
show_all = crm.is_true(crm.param('show_all'))
uptimes = crm.output(1).items()
max_uptime = 0, ''
for host, uptime in uptimes:
    if uptime > max_uptime[0]:
        max_uptime = uptime, host
if show_all:
    print "Uptimes: %s" % (', '.join("%s: %s" % v for v in uptimes))
print "Longest uptime is %s seconds on host %s" % max_uptime

See below for more details on the helper library crm_script.

Save the scripts as executable files in the same directory as the main.yml file.

Before running the script, it is possible to verify that the files are in a valid format and in the right location. Run the following command:

crm script verify check-uptime

If the verification is successful, try executing the script with the following command:

crm script run check-uptime

Example output:

# crm script run check-uptime
INFO: Check uptime of nodes
INFO: Nodes: ha-three, ha-one
OK: Fetch uptimes
OK: Report uptime
Longest uptime is 161054.04 seconds on host ha-one

To see if the show_all parameter works as intended, run the following:

crm script run check-uptime show_all=yes

Example output:

# crm script run check-uptime show_all=yes
INFO: Check uptime of nodes
INFO: Nodes: ha-three, ha-one
OK: Fetch uptimes
OK: Report uptime
Uptimes: ha-one: 161069.83, ha-three: 159950.38
Longest uptime is 161069.83 seconds on host ha-one

Remote permissions

Some scripts may require super-user access to remote or local nodes. It is recommended that this is handled through SSH certificates and agents, to facilitate password-less access to nodes.

Running scripts without a cluster

All cluster scripts can optionally take a nodes argument, which determines the nodes that the script will run on. This node list is not limited to nodes already in the cluster. It is even possible to execute cluster scripts before a cluster is set up, such as the health and init scripts used by the cluster sub-level.

crm script run health nodes=example1,example2

The list of nodes can be comma- or space-separated, but if the list contains spaces, the whole argument will have to be quoted:

crm script run health nodes="example1 example2"

Running in validate mode

It may be desirable to do a dry-run of a script, to see if any problems are present that would make the script fail before trying to apply it. To do this, add the argument dry_run=yes to the invocation:

crm script run health dry_run=yes

The script execution will stop at the first apply action. Note that non-modifying steps that happen after the first apply action will not be performed in a dry run.

Helper library

When the script data is copied to each node, a small helper library is also passed along with the script. This library can be found in utils/crm_script.py in the source repository. This library helps with producing output in the correct format, parsing the script.input data provided to scripts, and more.

crm_script API
host()

Returns hostname of current node

get_input()

Returns the input data list. The first element in the list is a dict of the script parameters. The rest are the output from previous steps.

parameters()

Returns the script parameters as a dict.

param(name)

Returns the value of the named script parameter.

output(step_idx)

Returns the output of the given step, with the first step being step 1.

exit_ok(data)

Exits the step returning data as output.

exit_fail(msg)

Exits the step returning msg as error message.

is_true(value)

Converts a truth value from string to boolean.

call(cmd, shell=False)

Perform a system call. Returns (rc, stdout, stderr).

The handles language

CIB configurations and commands can refer to the value of parameters in the text of the action. This is done using a custom language, similar to handlebars.

The language accepts the following constructions:

{{name}} = Inserts the value of the parameter <name>
{{script:name}} = Inserts the value of the parameter <name> from the
                  included script named <script>.
{{#name}} ... {{/name}} = Inserts the text between the mustasches when
                          name is truthy.
{{^name}} ... {{/name}} = Inserts the text between the mustasches when
                          name is falsy.
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